上海交大“985 工程”外语学院二语习得研究平台 > Ph.D Programs > 负反馈、修正后输出、注意和感知对外语发展的影响

负反馈、修正后输出、注意和感知对外语发展的影响

2009-04-13 13:32 来源: 作者: 网友评论 0 条 浏览次数 2616

负反馈、修正后输出、注意和感知对外语发展的影响

——关于英语问句习得的实证研究

EFFECTS of NEGATIVE FEEDBACK, MODIFIED OUTPUT, ATTENTION AND PERCEPTION ON EFL DEVELOPMENT: A STUDY OF EFL QUESTION FORMATION

作者:顾珊珊

导师:王同顺

ABSTRACT

Interaction research has come a long way since its beginnings nearly three decades ago. A large number of studies on interaction-learning relationship have shown the importance of interactions between native speakers (NSs) and non-native speakers (NNSs), between teachers and learners, and between peers in L2 development, whereas the findings are not yet consistent in the question how interaction can bring about positive effects on L2 development. This dissertation is an attempt to gain insight into the interaction-learning relationship. Specifically, the present study aims to investigate the effects of negative feedback (NF), learners’ modified output (MO) to that feedback, learners’ noticing target linguistic forms and perceptions about that feedback on EFL development. The research questions are mainly as follows. 1) What is the effect of NF in the form of recasts and clarification requests (CRs) alone and in combination on EFL development in the task-based oral interaction? 2) What is the effect of MO produced in response to NF on EFL development in the task-based oral interaction? 3) What is the effect of noticing target form on EFL development in the task-based oral interaction? 4) What is the effect of learners’ perception about NF on EFL development? EFL development in the present study was operationalized as stage development of EFL question formation according to Pienemann and Johnston’s developmental sequence for ESL question formation (Pienemann et al. 1988).

The present study adopted a pretest-treatment-posttests (immediate and delayed posttests) design, together with information gap and information exchange tasks, stimulated recall protocol, learning journals, and two questionnaires, to explore the research questions. 115 second-year university students participated in the pretest. According to their performance in the pretest, 61 EFL learners at stage 4 were selected for the later experiments. Learners’ noticing question forms were assessed by learning journals. Learners’ perceptions about NF were assessed through stimulated recall. Data obtained in the study were processed with SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) 11.5 for logistical regression, ANOVA, and multiple comparison analysis.

The major findings of the present study are as follows. 1) Neither recasts nor CRs were found significantly predictive of EFL question development. The NF in the combining form of recasts and CRs, however, could indirectly contribute to EFL question development by distinguishing the corrective nature of the NF for learners notice, and by creating opportunities for learners to modify their output. 2) The participants did modify their previous output in response to the instructor’s NF when they were provided with opportunities. Some learners could modify their output by producing stage 5 questions, while others just repeated their deviant utterance or changed to another topic. Most importantly, the participants’ MO involving stage 5 questions was found significantly predictive of EFL question development. 3) The participants did report the noticing of question forms. Their noticing question form was also found a significant predictor for EFL question development. 4) The significant categories of the participants’ perceptions involved an error correction, a request for utterance clarification, and a guide for task completion. Recasts followed by CRs were more likely perceived as error correction than CRs, while CRs were more likely regarded as requests for utterance clarification. It was also found that the participants’ perceptions had no significant relationship with EFL question development. Nevertheless perceptions could indirectly affect EFL question development. When learners perceived NF as corrective they would be more likely to notice the gap between their utterances and the target structure, and subsequently they could modify them if provided with opportunities to do modification.

On the basis of the present findings, the dissertation concludes that NF, MO, learners’ noticing of the target form and perceptions about NF are interrelated with each other in the interactional processes directly or indirectly to facilitate EFL development. Despite some limitations, the present study may provide us with a better understanding of the interaction-learning relationship in the Chinese EFL context, help us gain insight into the theories related with input, output, attention, and perception, and provide some pedagogical implications for how to manipulate focus-on-form (FonF) instruction in Chinese EFL classroom.

 

 

Keywords:   negative feedback, recast, clarification request, modified output, noticing, perception, interaction, EFL question development

 

对互动过程的研究已经走过将近三十个春秋。大量针对互动和二语习得之间关系的研究表明,本族语和非本族语者之间的互动、教师和学生之间的互动、同等水平的人之间的互动对促进二语的发展非常重要,但是关于互动过程如何促进二语发展的研究结论仍然不尽相同。本研究试图深入探讨互动过程中的输入、输出、学习者内在认知机制和外语发展之间的关系。具体而言,本研究致力于探讨负反馈、学习者的修正后输出、学习者的注意机制和对负反馈的感知对于中国学习者英语水平的发展有何作用。研究问题主要包括:(1)在基于任务的互动过程中,负反馈对中国英语学习者的英语语言发展起什么作用?(2)在基于任务的互动过程中,学习者修正后的输出对英语语言发展起什么作用?(3)在基于任务的互动过程中,学习者注意目标语结构对英语语言发展起什么作用?(4)在基于任务的互动过程中,学习者对负反馈的感知对英语语言发展起什么作用?本研究将中国学习者英语语言的发展限定为英语问句阶段的发展,将采用PienemannJohnston (Pienemann 等人 1988) 的英语问句发展阶段为划分依据,确定学习者的问句发展所属阶段。

本研究采用实验前测量——实验——实验后测量——延时的实验后测量的实验设计,使用“信息沟”和信息互换交际任务、刺激回忆、学习日记、问卷调查等测量工具,探讨上述研究问题。115名大学二年级非英语专业学生参加了实验前测量,以测量结果及PienemannJohnston的英语问句发展阶段为依据,选出处于问句发展第四阶段的61名学生作为后续实验对象。学习者对英语问句结构的注意通过学习日记测量,而学习者对负反馈的感知则通过刺激回忆测量。本研究使用统计软件SPSS 11.5分析收集到的数据,采用logistic回归,ANOVA,多重比较,卡方检验等方法对数据进行了统计分析。

研究结果主要为以下几点:(1)统计分析结果表明作为负反馈的重铸和要求澄清对英语问句发展没有显著影响,但是同时使用重铸和要求澄清两种反馈方式将对英语问句发展起到间接作用,即通过突显重铸的纠正性引起学习者注意其中的目标语形式,再通过要求澄清给学习者提供修正机会促使其对自己的问题话语进行修正。(2)研究发现学习者确实能对其问题话语进行修正,但是修正的方式不同。某些学习者能够成功修正问题话语从而产出第五阶段问句,但某些学习者仅仅是对问题话语的重复。更为重要的是,结果显示修正后输出是英语问句发展的显著预测因素之一。(3)研究发现学习者在互动中确实能够注意到英语问句形式,并且结果显示注意英语问句形式也是英语问句发展的显著预测因素之一。(4)研究发现学习者对负反馈的感知主要有三个显著类别,即认为负反馈是纠正错误、认为负反馈是要求表达清楚、认为负反馈是在指导学生完成任务。结果显示,重铸和要求澄清这两种反馈方式并用比单独使用要求澄清更易于被学习者感知为纠正错误,而要求澄清更易于被学习者认为是要求表达清楚。但是研究结果显示学习者对负反馈的感知不是英语问句发展的显著预测因素,但是能够间接影响英语问句发展。

基于以上结果,本研究认为在英语作为外语的学习环境下,负反馈、修正后输出、学习者的注意机制和感知在互动过程中是相互影响相互关联的因素,对英语语言的发展具有直接或间接的作用。尽管还存在局限性,但是本研究对于深入理解中国英语学习环境下互动和学习之间的关系有一定贡献。同时,本研究对于进一步理解输入、输出、注意机制及感知及其相关理论有一定贡献。此外,本研究对于在中国英语学习环境下如何实施重形式教学有一定启示。

 

 

关键词:    负反馈、重铸、要求澄清、修正后输出、注意机制、感知、互动、

英语问句发展

 

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